Monday, May 20, 2013

Dark Energy versus Dirac and anti-Dirac Seas

A big mystery arose from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of very distant supernovae carried out in 1998 that the Universe was actually expanding more slowly than it is today. The expansion of the Universe has been accelerating instead of slowing down due to gravity. No one knew how to explain the mystery, and it remains so until today.

Physicists came up with several explanations. Some of them posited that energy is a property of space a) and some other brought in the existence of a strange kind of energy-fluid that fills space.  Both theories imply that such energy would not be diluted as space expands. The remaining simply challenged Einstein's theory of gravity and proposed a new theory which includes some kind of field that creates the cosmic acceleration. 

Physicists could not say for sure which explanation was correct except that they offered a good solution … by giving it a name: dark energy b). They tried to explain on how space acquires energy from the quantum theory of matter. The so called empty space is actually full of virtual particles that continually appear and disappear. When physicists tried to calculate how much energy this would give empty space, they believed that the answer came out exceedingly wrong i.e. 10120 times too big. There is no way that physicists could explain such mysterious phenomenon as far as they stick to the Big Bang cosmology. 

Now, under the Grand Relativity Theory, the mystery of dark energy could be revealed in a different way. Dark energy is nothing but the unfathomable gigantic 4D-Dirac and anti-Dirac energy seas contained “beneath” our 3D-universe (hypersurface) which effects are piercing through it (Figure-1). It was not surprising that physicists found that the vacuum energy was enormous, about 120 orders of magnitude too large than that of measured c).

The 3D-energy measured in our daily experience is merely the gauge against this huge 4D-vacuum energy. But why can’t we see this “dark” energy? This is the beautiful mystery of the higher dimensional spaces’ properties that most people overlook. The being that lives in 3D-world cannot see something that resides in 4D-world or higher. The 3D-electromagnetic waves d) can only propagate across the 3D-hypersurface, not off of it (Figure-2). 

The universe’ expansion is the result of the gradual split of 4D-Dirac and 4D-anti-Dirac energy seas and its acceleration is caused by the tremendous strong opposite angular momentum exerted globally by those two opposite energy seas on either sides of the 3D-hypersurface e). Meanwhile, the local effect of such momentum exerting the orbital speed of galaxies we perceive as though clumped dark matters f) exist in there.

The 4D-dark energy is omnipresent, not necessarily in the far away galaxies but even extremely close to us piercing through within the inside of our body. Its effect could only be discerned within enormous astronomical scales. We may perceive it along the direction of 4th dimension (time-like distance) which, in fact, we cannot. It is from this same direction that the Hoyle C-fields or Higgs fields bombarding our 3D-universe (hypersurface) across to create and annihilate “normal” matter composing 5% of the total energy that affects our 3D-universe.


a. It is related to a long-discarded mathematical cosmological constant contained in Einstein's theory of gravity.
b.  It turns out that this dark energy composes of roughly 68% of the Universe, the remaining is made up by 27% dark matter and 5% matter. 
c.  What physicists measured as [3D-] vacuum energy was in fact superficial i.e. the balance of those two opposite 4D-energy seas which, if not zero (mirror symmetry), is a relatively small number (skew symmetry).
d.  There exist in grand cosmic higher dimensional electromagnetic waves which propagate in corresponding dimensional spaces. 
e.  You may refer this 3D-hypersurface as 3D-Dirichlet brane as the superstring theory does. The theory, however, should structure the brane similar to that for hypersurface in the Grand Relativity Theory. Or if you are religious enough, you may refer it to as Genesis’ 3D-firmament (firmamentum, Lat, raqia, Heb.) which lies between [4D-Dirac] water which is above and [4D-anti-Dirac] water which is below.
f.    There is no such dark matter exists in nature. What one observes as the galaxies' fast orbital phenomenon is nothing but the effect of the tremendous strong opposite angular momentum exerted locally by those two opposite energy seas on either sides of the 3D-hypersurface (our universe). We can rule out, therefore, the use of gravitational lenses effect, as what some astrophysicists tried to do, as a tool to detect the existence of dark matter because the attractive gravitational effects attributed to dark matter are merely a side-effect of dark energy. Some physicists have already speculated that dark matter and dark energy is a single energy field that produces different effects at different scales, but they didn't know how to physically model it.

Thursday, May 16, 2013

Dirac, anti-Dirac Seas and A Rotating Universe

It has been long time that a speculation on the rotating universe rose among the physicists. A rotating universe, however, would have a preferred spin axis – a special direction in space instead of homogeneous and isotropic space – violating the very foundation of modern cosmology.

The Grand Relativity Theory which hinges on the interaction of the two opposite 4D-energy seas (Dirac and anti-Dirac seas), between which our 3D-universe (hypersurface) is located, may explain such phenomenon. As these energy seas have opposite charges, they would exert strong opposite angular momentum (clockwise and counter clockwise directions) on the either sides of the hypersurface.

Under such dynamic system, two kinds of hypersurface rotations are possible i.e. a rotation about the axis lying across its surface (time-like rotation) and about the axis normal to it (space-like rotation). The former rotation determines the direction of dynamical time (Figure-1A) that we experience as a passage of time, a feeling that time is running, while the latter rotation may turn around the whole universe and spin all objects within (Figure-1B).

But the turning around of the whole universe requires a very specific condition. It may happen only if there is an excess of clockwise or counter-clockwise rotation of the two energy (Dirac and anti-Dirac) seas. The entire universe would have a net angular momentum and have, therefore, a preferred right or left "handedness". This means that the mirror symmetry ("parity") of the whole universe is violated on the largest scales. Otherwise, the parity is preserved and the whole universe is not rotating. But even in this case, the local objects (subatomic and atomic particles, planets, solar systems, galaxies, super-galaxies etc.) may spin as far as their left and right handed rotations are in par.

This ambiguity as whether the whole universe is rotating or not could be solved only by direct astronomical observations. The recent study done by Professor Michael Longo and his team a) at the University of Michigan over 15,000 galaxies in the northern hemisphere indicates that above the plane of Milky Way, spiral galaxies which are spinning in a counterclockwise are seven percent more than those spinning clockwise.

A separate study done over around 8300 spiral galaxies in the southern galactic hemisphere indicates that below the galactic plane, on the contrary, spiral galaxies whirling in a clockwise direction are more than that of counterclockwise. The discovery of an excess of counter-clockwise rotating spiral galaxies in the part of the sky toward the northern hemisphere and the opposite toward the southern hemisphere indicates that the universe has not mirror symmetry. The survey coverage, however, extended out to only 5 percent of the distance to the farthest observed galaxies (around 600 million light-years from Earth).

The small excess which is calculated at about 7 percent within the region extending not even one per mil of the total volume of the visible universe may be only local inhomogeneity of much larger universe which might be more homogeneous and isotropic.  Our intuition tells us that it should be most likely the case b).

However, as we experience the passage of time in our daily life, the time-like rotation of the hypersurface that creates such feeling should be real. The excess of clockwise or counter clockwise rotations which makes this time-like rotation if does not occur universally at least regionally, for example, at the extreme sides of the universe. This may be the consequence of the Dirac and anti-Dirac seas' skew symmetry rather than mirror symmetry parity (Figure-2), which becomes more and more accentuated during the lifecycle of the rotation. And the same mechanism might also come about for the space-like rotation.


a.  The result of the study is, of course, devoted to enhance the Big Bang cosmology, but we can take the advantage of it to support our Grand Relativity Theory.

b.  However, in the ordinary life various phenomena violate parity in microscopic scales. Such phenomena, for example, may be observed in nuclear beta decays and amino acids which have strong preference for left-handed, rather than right-handed.